This section includes fundamental documents for the development and implementation of the Categories and Criteria for the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems. These documents are key to understanding how the proposed categories work and how they can be applied to develop case studies.


Year Reference Language
2015 Guidelines for the application of IUCN Red List of Ecosystems categories and criteria.
Bland L.M., Keith D.A., Murray N.J. & Rodríguez J.P. (eds.)
IUCN, ix + 93 pp.
(Version 1.0)
2013 Scientific Foundations for an IUCN Red List of Ecosystems.
Keith D.A., Rodríguez J.P., Rodríguez-Clark K.M., Aapala K., Alonso A., Asmussen M., Bachman S., Bassett A., Barrow E.G., Benson J.S., Bishop M.J., Bonifacio R., Brooks T.M., Burgman M.A., Comer P., Comín F.A., Essl F., Faber-Langendoen D., Fairweather P.G., Holdaway R.J., Jennings M., Kingsford R.T., Lester R.E., Mac Nally R., McCarthy M.A., Moat J., Nicholson E., Oliveira-Miranda M.A., Pisanu P., Poulin B., Riecken U., Spalding M.D. & Zambrano-Martínez S.
PLOS ONE 8(5): e62111
Supporting Information:
Appendix S1: Definitions terms, PDF
Appendix S2: Risk assessment case studies for example ecosystems (Full PDF)
English, Spanish, French
2015 A practical guide to the application of the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems criteria.
Rodríguez J.P., Keith D.A., Rodríguez-Clark K.M., Murray N.J., Nicholson E., Regan T.J., Miller R.M., Barrow E.G., Bland L.M., Boe K., Brooks T.M., Oliveira-Miranda M.A., Spalding M.D. & Wit P.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 370: 20140003.
(The PDF includes corrections in figure 3)
Supporting Information:
Appendix 1: Summary of the five criteria (A-E) used to evaluate the risk status of an ecosystem
Appendix 2: Examples of variables potentially suitable for assessing the severity of environmental degradation under Criterion C
Appendix 3: Examples of biotic variables potentially suitable for assessing the severity of disruption to biotic interactions under Criterion D
2015 The IUCN Red List of Ecosystems: motivations, challenges and applications.
Keith D.A., Rodríguez J.P., Brooks T.M., Burgman M.A., Barrow E.G., Bland L., Comer P.J., Franklin J., Link J., McCarthy M.A., Miller R.M., Murray N.J., Nel J., Nicholson E., Oliveira-Miranda M.A., Regan T.J., Rodríguez-Clark K.M., Rouget M. & Spalding M.D.
Conservation Letters [doi: 10.1111/conl.12167]
2015 Assessing and managing risks to ecosystem biodiversity.
Keith D.A.
Austral Ecology 40, in press. [doi:10.1111/aec.12249]
2011 Establishing IUCN Red List Criteria for Threatened Ecosystems (includes Version 1 of the proposed categories and criteria).
Rodríguez J.P., Rodríguez-Clark K.M., Baillie J.E.M., Ash N., Benson J., Boucher T., Brown C., Burguess N.D., Collen B., Jennings M., Keith D.A., Nicholson E., Revenga C., Reyers B., Rouget M., Smith T., Spalding, M., Taber A., Walpole M., Zager I., & Zamin T.
Conservation Biology 25 (1): 21–29
English, Spanish, French,
Abstract: Chinese, Bahasa Indonesia,
2009 Assessing the threat status of ecological communities.
Nicholson E., Keith D.A. & Wilcove D.S.
Conservation Biology, Volume 23, No. 2, 259–274
More information: [email protected]
2009 A new approach and case study for estimating extent and rates of habitat loss for ecological communities.
Keith, D.A., C. Orscheg, C.C. Simpson, P.J. Clarke, L. Hughes, S.J. Kennelly, R.E. Major, T.R. Soderquist, A.L. Wilson & M. Bedward.
Biological Conservation 142(7): 1469-1479.
More information: [email protected]